Froth flotation for separating discrete mineral particles from gangue was developed in the early 1900s and depends upon differences in the surface chemistry of the mineral species involved.

At Hazen, our knowledge and experience in this field include the commonplace and the exotic. We have studied not only the flotation of sulfides, gold ores, iron ores, coal, oil shale, and many other nonmetallics, but also soluble salts, oxides, and some uncommon materials from waste streams.

Flotation techniques we have used in addition to the ordinary air-froth type include unusual procedures such as ion, precipitate, and agglomeration flotation using inert gas, air, or in situ gas generation. We have applied dissolved air flotation to special situations and are familiar with various forms of "piggyback" flotation procedures. Some of our projects have required the development of novel reagent combinations or unique adaptations and the construction of special equipment. Where it has been beneficial to the client, we have aided in the design and installation of unique commercial flotation recovery circuits, complete with startup assistance and operator training.

The relationship between mineralogy and successful flotation is sometimes overlooked. Hazen maintains a complete Mineralogy Laboratory that supports flotation studies at the bench scale, in the pilot plant, and in the operating commercial plant. A fully equipped analytical laboratory is vital for successful and economical test work, and analytical support is an integral part of nearly all Hazen projects.

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